Danfoss Motor – Automotive Motor Technology Reform Process
Internal combustion motor, born!
* Before the start of the sub-industrial revolution, human GDP did not change much. Since the * industrial revolution, human GDP has risen. As the origin of industrial civilization, the internal combustion motor is also revolutionized. For more than 150 years, the structure of internal combustion motors has not changed much, but the efficiency, power, and emissions of internal combustion motors have been improving. Because the structure, materials and processing technology of the internal combustion motor, the electrification control method, and the combustion method have undergone tremendous changes.
For example, structural changes make the internal combustion motor “body” better and better; the application of new materials makes the internal combustion motor lighter and reduces the heat loss to the limit; the diversification of control means makes the internal combustion motor always run at * reasonable work The combustion method and the optimization of fuel make *Drip oil play to the best efficiency… The human intelligence and unremitting efforts make the development of internal combustion motor technology advance by leaps and bounds. Time has passed, and many classics have also been born.
From classic large displacement to practical four-cylinder machine
There are some things that don’t dim as time goes by. This is the classic. There are many classics, too many to mention. We are talking about the motor today. Countries and regions with relatively developed automobile industry in the world basically have several classic motors. In the United States, they are represented by Ford and GM.
For example, the FordFlathead V8 motor series, which was designed and manufactured by Ford’s own V8 motor, was born in 1932 and has a displacement of 2.2L-5.5L. It uses the side-mounted valve (SideValve, which is rarely seen now). The valve is not installed in the cylinder head. The significance of the motor* is that the cost of the V8 motor is greatly reduced. In the American automobile market at that time, the average consumer can only buy a car equipped with a 4-cylinder or a 6-cylinder motor. V8 power is a luxury for ordinary people, but the appearance of FlatheadV8 allows ordinary consumers to enjoy the charm of the V8 high-powered motor. Since then, the American V8 plot has also been released and developed.
The GM’s small-block motor rivals the FordFlathead V8 motor. * It was introduced in 1953. The initial displacement was 4.3L. By 1970, the displacement* had reached 6.6L. With the development of technology, the small-block motor has gradually improved its technology, such as replacing the carburetor with fuel injection. The 5.7-liter motor, which has been in production for a long time, has been produced since 1967 and has been widely used in various types since 2003. The vehicle, which became the GM’s standard V8 motor, is almost equipped with all of GM’s brands of cars and trucks.
Not only that, but based on the small-block motor, GM’s LT/LS series motors are well known. Compared with small-block motors, the general-purpose LT/LS series motors are blue and blue, and all aluminum cylinders. And the cylinder head design makes this series of motors small, light and large, and because of the rich accessories and technical resources in the United States and Australia, the variety of matching methods, up to the cylinder head assembly, motor assembly As small as the valve oil seal, almost everything can be freely matched according to their own needs, so the LT/LS series motor is widely used.
However, the beautiful era of large displacement always has the end of the day. Due to environmental and related policy issues, the once eight-cylinder and six-cylinder motors have gradually been replaced by four-cylinder motors. Objectively speaking, there are two main reasons why a four-cylinder machine with fewer cylinders can replace a large-displacement motor. One is volume and the other is cost. More and more people realize that thinking about large spaces does not necessarily increase the size of the body, and improving the structure of the car can also achieve the goal. Under the continuous innovation of technology, the four-cylinder motor can output the same power performance as the eight-cylinder and the six-cylinder, but it can save more space and naturally has an advantage.
In the case of six-cylinder and four-cylinder, the six-cylinder machine has two more pistons than the four-cylinder machine. Accordingly, four more gas rings and two oil rings are added, and the contact and friction area is increased by about 30%. The camshaft, valve spring, and valve oil seal are also secretly “stealing oil” from your fuel tank. The four-cylinder motor is not only compact, lightweight, but also has a much lower failure rate than a six-cylinder motor. At the same time, the four-cylinder motor has more advantages in terms of intake efficiency and upgrade space than the six-cylinder motor.
The arrival of the three-cylinder machine
In order to cope with climate change, promote the development of energy conservation and emission reduction in the transportation sector, and at the same time, in order to maintain the national energy security needs, the United States, the European Union and other automobile development powers or regions have successively managed the fuel consumption of automobiles. For example, the US government has guided the development of the small car market by adjusting the structure of the vehicle and guiding the miniaturization of vehicles, introducing greenhouse gas emission regulations and CAFÉ regulations, and set off a boom in motor reduction. In the EU, the CO2 excess emission tax is also imposed. The ultra-low emission vehicle accounting discount, the increase in the cost of purchasing large vehicles, and other means to promote the miniaturization of vehicles and motors, indirectly promote the development of three-cylinder supercharged motors.
In fact, the three-cylinder motor is not new, and it has been decades since history. In the early years, many mini-cars used three-cylinder machines. However, the three-cylinders at that time were small-displacement self-priming, and the displacement was about 1.0L. The current three-cylinders are basically turbocharged models. And the displacement can reach 1.5L.
Looking back now, * Nearly a wave of three-cylinder machines appeared on the market, probably around 2008. At that time, after being familiar with the gradual increase in dynamic response of naturally aspirated motors, the broad and direct power output of small displacement turbocharged motors was refreshing. But because the technology was not mature at the time, the problems of low twist, jitter and noise were really hard to really love. However, with the advancement of technology, the advantages of the three-cylinder motor are gradually increasing in recent years.
The new-generation three-cylinder motor performs well on the one hand, and even better than the four-cylinder; on the other hand, the three-cylinder motor is more economical in terms of fuel economy. In addition, major OEMs and industrial technology companies reduce vibration and noise through the day-to-day compensation, such as increasing the balance axis and deviating from a certain angle. In addition, because the three-cylinder machine is lighter in weight and smaller in size, it is beneficial to the vehicle weight reduction design and saves manufacturing costs.
A number of well-known car companies around the world, BMW, Volkswagen, General Motors, Ford, etc., have said in recent years that they will invest more energy in developing high-efficiency, low-emission three-cylinder motors. For example, the BMW 1 Series, the BMW 2 Series Multi-Function Tourer and the MINICooper are equipped with BMW’s self-developed 1.5T three-cylinder turbocharged motor; the Ford Fiesta/ST (overseas) and the Focus are also equipped with the Ford 1.0TEcoboost three-cylinder turbocharger. The motor; PSA Group’s Citroen C4L, Peugeot 308S, etc. are also equipped with a three-cylinder motor; and then Buick new Yinglang, Yuelang, GL6 and other models equipped with a 1.3T three-cylinder turbocharged motor.
Let’s take Buick’s 1.3T three-cylinder motor as an example. The motor has a high horsepower of 163 horsepower and a peak torque of 230 Nm (1800-4400 rpm). The measured 1.3T Yinglang 100 km acceleration is only 8 seconds. This data is already stronger than most 1.6L, 1.8L and 1.4T motors.
So how to solve the jitter problem? One of the important anti-shake designs is the application of the balance shaft.
Simply speaking, it is a shaft with an eccentric weight and synchronous rotation with the crankshaft. The reverse vibration force generated by the eccentric weight makes the motor achieve a good balance and reduce motor vibration.
In addition, this 1.3T motor uses a dual injection system and an electronically controlled relief valve, which is very helpful for the motor’s power response and fuel economy. The so-called double injection is simply a cylinder with two injectors, one in the cylinder and the other in the manifold. Both work under different conditions, allowing the motor’s power and fuel economy to play into the * state. The electronically controlled relief valve ensures the sensitivity of the dynamic response.
This also made the opportunity of the “madman log” video shooting team to come to Beijing in April this year, I also deliberately borrowed a GL6, but did not tell the Taiwanese friends that this is a three-cylinder motor. A few days of experimentation, only the Vincent of “The Madman’s Log” can be detected from the sound of the motor at high speed, but the exquisiteness and power of the operation are blunt, and there is no difference between the four cylinders.
Danfoss Motor believes that after several generations of technicians’ practice and exploration, automotive motor technology will develop better and more mature, and benefit people.